[Event] Ethiopia Expands Efforts to Survey Hydrocarbon Resources
October 2022 East Africa is quickly emerging as one of the premier destinations for oil and natural gas exploration, with numerous foreign companies engaged in exploratory and extractive ventures in countries like Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, Mozabique, and Uganda. This new boom in the oil industry, driven by growing global demands and new investments from rising powers like China, has already made several significant oil discoveries, including the 560 million barrel oil find in Turkana, Kenya. So far, Ethiopia's own share of this East African hydrocarbon rush has been something of a mixed bag. Early speculation regarding Ethiopia's oil reserves--which suggested that the country may have some 2.7 billion barrels of oil hidden away in its southern provinces--has so far failed to materialize into concrete finds, with Tullow Oil (the firm responsible for the Turkana find) failing to find any productive wells in the South Omo Block. Tullow remained in Africa until 2018, when it and partner Africa Oil began the process of withdrawing their operations in the South Omo Block. For a time, it seemed like the promise of hydrocarbon reserves in Ethiopia was dead, with investors looking to proven exploration markets in Uganda and Kenya instead. And then, payday. In 2018/19, Chinese oil and gas firm Poly-GCL announced the discovery of some 7 to 8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas at the Calub and Hilala gas fields in Blocks 11 and 15, which was quickly followed by British firm NewAGE's discovery of 1.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas near Elkuran in Block 8. These discoveries, amounting to some 272km3 of gas and a smaller quantity of oil, were significant not just for their size (between these two discoveries alone, Ethiopia gained enough natural gas reserves to surpass current gas exporters like Israel, Bangladesh, and Brunei), but as proof that there were hydrocarbon resources in Ethiopia (which drew attention from firms that previously had not invested in exploration in Ethiopia, including oil giant Chevron in late 2019. Ethiopia and Djibouti immediately teamed up to build a 760km+ pipeline connecting these gas fields in the Ogaden basin to the Red Sea. Revenues from the export of natural gas, which started in 2022 with the completion of the pipeline, are expected to amount to some 1b USD annually (increasing as more projects are drilled), bringing a critical influx of FOREX to the Ethiopian government. With the first exports of Ethiopian hydrocarbon reaching international markets, and with historic oil finds in neighboring Eritrea, Ethiopia is hoping to leverage the possibility of further finds to attract additional investment into its hydrocarbon sector. At present, Ethiopia has several concession blocks that still lack investment, which the government is hoping to rectify by offering exploration rights to international hydrocarbon firms. South Omo Block With Tullow's withdrawal from Ethiopia in 2019 after failing to renew their license, the oil concession for the South Omo Block is once again up for licensing. Located in southern Ethiopia along the South Sudan and Kenya borders, the South Omo Block is a geological continuation of the Turkana basin and other major East African hydrocarbon blocks, leading many to speculate that it may share in some of that oil wealth. While the initial estimates that the block may hold up to 2.7 billion barrels of oil seem to have been overstated, if the block contains even a fraction of that amount, it would still be considerably valuable for whomever takes the block. The Poly-GCL Blocks Chinese firm Poly-GCL is easily the largest hydrocarbon operator in Ethiopia, owning the extraction rights for the bulk of the new discoveries (7-8 TCF of the total 9.6 TCF). With their ten total exploration blocks in the Ogaden basin, they also have the greatest presence in the region. However, only two of the ten blocks under the license have been properly explored, with the remaining eight awaiting further exploration. Ethiopia is hoping to reach out to Poly-GCL to persuade them to begin exploration activities in the remaining eight (as well as any other blocks they feel like leasing), with the goal of discovering my natural gas or oil. The Remaining Ogaden Basin Blocks Out of the 21 blocks in the Ogaden Basin (the site of the most recent natural gas finds), seven are still unlicensed and more or less unexplored, Blocks 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 14. Ethiopia hopes to attract foreign firms to begin exploration in these blocks. They are more likely to contain natural gas than oil, as indicated by the discovery of natural gas in blocks 7, 11, and 15, but natural gas is still valuable and desirable. Adigala Block The Adigala Block is viewed as an extension of the oil-bearing geological formations of Somaliland, which oil exploration firm Genel anticipates to contain at least 2 billion barrels of oil. Genel previously expressed interest in moving into the Adigala Block, but as of 2019, it was NewAGE, the same firm that made the Elkuran find in Block 8, that entered into license negotiations with the Ethiopian government. Ethiopia is hoping to finalize license negotiations for the Adigala Block, which Ethiopia hopes will contain some amount of oil, similar to the neighboring oil seeps in Somalia. Amhara Blocks The blocks in Amhara state are some of the least explored in the country. Neighboring blocks AB1, AB4, and AB7, operated by Falcon, reported some crude oil finds around 2018, which Ethiopia is hoping will attract additional exploration and investment in the remaining six blocks of the region. North West Oil Shale The Ethiopia-Eritrea border is home to some 3.9 billion tons of oil shale--enough to produce a staggering trillion barrels of oil, if it can ever be economically extracted. So far, there has been very little investigation into the viability of these resources, owing to low oil prices in the world. However, with production costs set to continue dropping over the foreseeable future with technological advances in extraction, and with Ethiopia's demand for oil set to grow astronomically as the country's economic development continues, Ethiopia is hoping that some segment of this oil shale can be economically developed. As such, Ethiopia has invited oil shale leaders from around the world, most notably Canadian, Chinese, Estonian, and American firms, to invest in oil shale extraction in northern Ethiopia.
Part IV - Entry Options Hey everyone, you can find Part III of this series here: https://www.reddit.com/Forex/comments/h97sv7/part_iii_my_10_minutesday_trading_strategy/?utm_source=share&utm_medium=ios_app&utm_name=iossmf Welcome to Part IV where I will be discussing various entry options. I’ve said this before, but it is worth repeating here as well: identifying a technical setup is one thing. Making money off of that setup is a whole other thing. This is precisely why most signal services fail. While the quality of the signal provider is one thing to consider, the other thing to take into account is that it is very difficult to blindly trade like somebody else - even if they give you their exact entry and exit points. This is why I really want to focus on figuring out how to make MY strategy work for YOU. I will share with you a few different options for entries based on the strategy’s prototypical setup. But it is 100% on you to figure out what suits your trading style, personality, and lifestyle the best. Part V will cover exit options. Part VI will cover risk allocation & management Let’s get on with it. Basic Notes On Entries: We are assuming that all entries are referring to a setup that forms at 5pm EST. I am using 5pm EST because that is when the most trading opportunities have the potential of occurring based on this strategy. It is also when you will see the spreads widen out as the NY Session comes to a close. Therefore, you will not want to take a market order right at 5pm EST. Usually the spreads start narrowing again by 6pm EST.
Limit order (we will use fibonacci retracements to figure out where to place our limit entry orders)
Stop order (we can set a stop order beyond the setup candle’s high/low. I personally do not recommend this particular method, but I am including it here because one trader that uses this strategy has had success with it and prefers it)
The big difference between the stop order and the other entry types is pretty simple. If you are using a stop order to get into the trade, you will not have as good a risk to reward ratio as a trader that used a limit order to get into the trade. The advantage to using a stop order is that there will be some trades where you do not enter the trade because price never went beyond the high/low point of the setup candle. This means you avoid taking a loss on those trades whereas a trader who used a limit or market order to get into the trade would take a loss. The other advantage is that there may be trade setups where the limit orders don’t get filled but the stop order will. I have NOT statistically tested stop orders vs the other order types. If you want to know what works best for you, it is on you to do the testing. Okay let’s take a deeper look now into the different ways we can enter:
Limit order: We will draw our fibonacci retracement levels over the setup candle (I have updated the Fibonacci levels I use in Part III. Replaced the old screenshot with the new one with up-to-date levels). We will then look to place our limit orders just below (IF a short trade setup) / above (IF a long trade setup) the 23.6% and 38.2% Retracement levels. When I say just below or above, I am referring to the spread amount at minimum. However more above/below you want to go is up to you and your testing. Sometimes your limit orders get filled rather quickly. Sometimes they take longer (hours longer). I cancel unfilled Retracement orders if price has run to a fiboancci extension level without filling me on the trade. The obvious benefit to limit orders is that you can set your orders and then simply walk away from the screens. IF the setup candle closes past its 23.6% Retracement level then you will only take ONE limit order off the 38.2%.
Market order: Since we will not be taking a market order trade right at 5pm EST, this leaves us with options. Because a market order does not guarantee us a fill price, we do have some flexibility vs taking strict limit orders. The risk you run with using limit orders is that if your price is not met, you do not get filled. So for example, let’s say it is 6pm EST and the spreads begin to narrow once more and price just so happens to trade right around the 23.6% Fibonacci Retracement area. This is a great opportunity to simply take a market order and get into the trade. Let’s say, however, that price never retraced back into the setup candle and it looks like the trade may simply run to its profit target. What do you do? Well, you can still take a market order to get into the trade… OR you can wait to see if price will retrace back into the candle later on… OR you can write the trade off because price has already run to a fibonacci extension level. The bottom line is that if you have flexibility and you have options. **NOTE: On setups that occur outside the 5pm hour, you can obviously take market orders as soon as the setup bar closes without worrying about unusual spreads)**
Stop order: Stop orders are similar to limit orders in that you can set the orders and then walk away from the screens. If you are using stop orders you will not split your order into several parts. You will simply take one order. You will set the stop order just beyond the high/low of the setup candle.
My preferred method of entry: I like to combine the market and limit entry options myself. Again - assuming a 5pm EST setup here is what I do:
Set limit orders at 38.2 and 61.8% Retracement levels and walk away. If I get a notification that my 23.6% order got triggered, I don’t have to come back to my screens. If I don’t get a notification that my 23.6% order got triggered by 6pm EST, I’ll come back to the trade setup and execute a market order and then delete the 23.6% order. I leave the 38.2% limit order as is. Hopefully it triggers, but if it doesn’t then at least I have half my position on. IF it is a situation where the setup candle closes past its 23.6% Retracement then I will only take 1 order, whether it is the market or the limit.
Please, don't downvote, instead, some feedback would be appreciated.
Before you continue: Will only work on Apple devices because of the API being used.
You can skip this, just some information: Originally, I found a good looking template that comes with Numbers (Apple) but it doesn't work as expected; Basically it will fail to calculate properly based on different currencies.
General idea was to have something quick, clean, setup-free and portable for Apple devices. Most of the spreadsheets out there are Google-tied. There are a lot of other spreadsheets around fully customizable for Android users.
The spreadsheet works! Per API design, information is updated with PREVIOUS market day closing values.
Check instructions in "Documentation" to override currency settings.
When rebalancing mutual funds, it will calculate how much $ (Cash) to invest, but when doing Stocks / ETFs will do the shares to add and cash too.
For Canadians: TD E-Series values are accurate but with an important delay because of the information not being properly updated by Yahoo.
v1.8a Modifications: - Fixed: Not every label showing in the "Portfolio". - Modified: Portfolio "% Gain" Graphic now showing values. - 52 W. Low / High Graphic in "Watchlist" replaced by Beta Graphic. - Minor tables corrections. v1.8 Modifications: - Reported: Major bug fixed when changing regional and currency settings. - Formula fixed when calculating dividends income. - Several elements locked to avoid dragging on mobile devices. - Watchlist "1y Target" columns modified to make sorting possible. - Watchlist % Growth negative values fixed. - Minor tables fix. v1.7b Modifications: - Fixed formula error in the Watchlist sheet. - Modified tables when scrolling for mobile devices / smaller screens. v1.7a Modifications: - Fixed cell error in the Dividend sheet. - Replaced Dividend's graphic by 2D Donut instead of 2D Bar. v1.7 Modifications: - Working as originally intended: * Just one file for any single country/currency. * Base file provided in Numbers never supported multicurrency independently of the formulas. * Will use as a base the ticker's original currency on which this one is traded. * Depending on the country you live in, the spreadsheet will calculate the proper "Cost Basis", "Market Value" and "Gain". * Support for all major countries and currencies. * The previous setting is based on the device's "Language & Region" configuration. Can be overridden, instructions in the "Documentation" sheet.
"Documentation" sheet modified. Added instructions for currency support and override settings.
"Live Forex Rates & Currencies" provided by Yahoo. Any given difference should be based on this and not on the formulas.
Table optimizations, bug fixes, error handling, removed several calculations.
v1.6 Modifications: - Added % Growth in the Portfolio sheet graphic. - Implemented Dividend income calculation per year in a new sheet. - Added some conditional colouring in the "Rebalance" sheet if "Desired %" is not 0% or 100%. - Some bugs fixes and table corrections. v1.5 Modifications: * Added Multicurrency support and fixed several bugs in the Portfolio page: - "Market Value" and "Cost Basis" per Ticker will be added as in the ticker currency (Do not add a currency format to the cells!) - Total "Market Value" and Total "Cost Basis" will be calculated in the currency you do transactions (Either U.S. or CAD) - Total ticker's gains and the "Gain" total will be displayed in the currency you do transactions (Either U.S. or CAD) If you find any error or problems and/or you need support for any other currency let me know.
Monday - Definitely a day ruled by the bulls. Referencing my last post, there was not a whole lot that my trade entries (chosen before market) allowed me to do. A bit past the upper side of my chosen entry zone you will see a double top, and on the M5, it makes a pretty clean M pattern. However, because it was so extended, I simply didn't want to jump in and "Guess the Top". Those with better analysis than I may have seen the turning point as the perfect short, as it lined up with a high made on Nov 7 at about 10:45 just perfectly. Personally, I think it is difficult to decipher demand from noise on the M15, but today was a learning experience, as I was surprised to see so many levels blown out of the water by London's early moves. Lessons learned. Anyhow, not much changed here in the larger time frames. Daily chart and H4 are creating a very nice volatility tunnel. A true tease, the guppy is not giving us much here. What really bothers me? On the daily chart, it looks as though the nearest upward spike peaked on Oct. 21. Look left and what do you see? Not a whole lot. Nothing in the way of major supply to stop the impulse we saw. Much like banks build their order book in the JPY session (depending on who you study), this appears to be the same thing only on a grander scale. Is the lack of supply/selling pressure enough to see this to 147.xxx in the coming month, or would the banks rather average down to better supply/price before making that same move...
POSITIONING OF POTENTIAL ENTRIES:
This pair is in a lot of noise, and as such, like yesterday, I am truly thrown off about whether to choose a long or short bias. Rather, I will simply determine two points at which I feel I have both allowed myself to allow the market to make its move as well as allowed for the over extension necessary for good R:R. To the short side, I like an entry of around 140.58. The red "1", "2", and "3" represent any unfilled orders in the near term. the 3rd level is the most opportune in my humble opinion. Beyond that, there is significant room to run, so I will be looking for good signs of reversal before making my entry. To the long side, I am more cloudy. At the very least, the US/AUD low provides some simply stop hunt opportunities, but this is not as far out as I'd prefer. the M15 Proximal demand zone shows a fairly text book rally-base-rally. However, being on the M15, I am not putting much behind it other than a zone to watch should the long stop hunt move get blown by. The 3rd level of demand listed with the Blue "3", provides a location with unfilled stops that stand the most to lose given the last trading day. https://preview.redd.it/2bwwnzutj6y31.png?width=1915&format=png&auto=webp&s=dd16179dd0516b773abc6b099f572e03d8b4c2c8 All that said, I will wait and see which direction the market surges in London open (if at all), and then prep myself for the fade. Having looked through u/thefrozen_one trades, I am going to be looking for the following to assist my entry:
Sharp rejection at my chosen entries - I am still learning how to place these, so I will also be looking left for structure to provide confluence to my analysis in the moment.
M/W patterns on the M15 or M5
Tweezers/long wicks - again, looking for confluence here and not blindly trading wicks.
I appreciate those who entertain my rambling. At this stage, I am not anywhere near predicting the next move. However, this has been my first opportunity to consistently keep myself honest in analyzing and tracking a forex pair, free of indicator madness. I am excited to see my rather dry and ambiguous observances mature into confident bias with which I attack daily trades. Green pips to all!
2015年GDP增速最终收于6.9%，正式进入6时代。 ① GDP全年目标7%，完成来看，四个季度当季同比分别为7%、7%、6.9%、6.8%，全年6.9%，预计2016年经济增长在6.5-6.6%。 2015年经济整体几乎是“平”的，但内部结构发生了较大改变。正向贡献主要来自于金融业与房地产业：金融业贡献增加（2014年四季度0.95%提升至目前的1.31%，以下数据皆为同期），前半年主要靠牛市的金融民工（二季度日均交易额峰值达到2万亿），后半年主要靠贷款的银行民工（2015年新增贷款同比增速高达15%，而2014年仅为9.8%）；房地产销售回暖下的房地产业贡献增加（0.11%提升到0.29%）。反向拖后腿主要来自于工业与建筑业：传统工业在产能过剩、杠杆高企、库存过多的三座大山下负重前行，基本供过于求、价格跌成白菜、利润下滑不止的局面没有改变，工业贡献从2.29%降低至1.92%，稳增长的边际改善难以完全对冲下滑，工业增加值不见起色，2015年累计增速6.1%为危机以来最低值；建筑业贡献下滑（从0.71%降至0.42%），主要原因包括，房地产由于老龄化与高库存，销售并未能有效传导至开工，基建虽然刺激政策颇多但效果并未有效释放。 展望2016，经济下台阶是必然，或许真的要跟7%说再见。房地产人口老龄化同时库存高企，制造业面临去产能且“锈带”重生需时间，出口尚未企稳叠加汇率波动喜忧参半，基建是唯一的依靠但是也是托而不举，金融业的繁荣不可持续，房地产销售已经回落，下台阶几成定局，预计2016GDP增长6.5-6.6%。
② CPI全年目标3%，完成来看，年度CPI 1.4%，预计2016年1.6%。 首先，2016年翘尾因素略高于2015年。其次，2015年猪价上行因素明显，考虑到猪价上涨带动补栏以及明年总需求依然不强，2016猪价继续强势的概率不大。最后，2015年Brent原油价格较2014年接近腰斩，对CPI新涨价因素拖累明显，考虑到2016原油供需缺口收窄，美元指数阶段性见顶，地缘政治刺激，油价将有正向贡献。第四，在经济下行的基本判断之下，其它价格因素的贡献应该也略低于今年。综合看2016年CPI约为1.62%，且全年呈现倒N型。
③ 固定资产投资增速全年目标15%，完成来看，10.1%，预计2016年9.4%。 2015年房地产开发投资增速1%，2014年10.5%，2016年-3%。当月投资同比依然停留在负区间，但跌幅收窄至-1.9%（前值-5.1%），没有明显企稳迹象。过去十多年全国累计新开工174亿平米，而销售只有117亿平米，其中还有相当一部分是二手房（保守估算有30%左右），供给与销售之间的差额达到惊人的90亿平米。更可怕的是，2014的新开工面积（14亿平米）依然大于销售面积（13亿平米）。如果新开工和销售按此增速持续下去，那么库存也需要10年来消化。由此推断房地产开工和投资都还没有见底，预计2016年房地产投资增速-3%。 2015年制造业投资9.1%，2014年13.5%，2016年5%。PPI已46个月为负，利润同比也一直为负，考虑到煤炭行业2015、2016的新增产能依然有3亿吨左右/每年，粗钢行业2015、2016的新增产能也还有3000万吨/每年，产能去化尚未实质开始，需求萎靡下，产能不去，库存难下，利润难起，杠杆难消，投资难升，不下勇气刮骨疗伤，起色难有。细项来看，计算机、通信、汽车制造业表现良好，传统资源依旧跌跌不休。考虑产能去化周期较长，预计2016年制造业投资继续下滑至5%。 2015年基建投资预计17.8%，2014年21.5%，为保明年GDP6.5%，2016年基建投资至少要为18.7%。供给侧改革并不是不需要基建，恰恰相反，基建将更为重要，只能靠基建。去库存去产能去杠杆之下的房产、制造业、私人部门投资都会下滑，需要基建对冲；补短板下的落后地区基础设施缺口大，需要基建补充。未来基建的存量项目融资继续通过放松平台融资和债务置换来保证；增量资金来源主要靠PPP和专项建设基金，共计4万亿左右。详情可参考《2016是基建投资大年（民生宏观微观察）》报告。
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